This page explains the operation of transistors in circuits.
Practical matters such as testing, precautions when soldering and identifying leads are covered by the
General: Types | Currents |
Functional model | Darlington pair
Switching: Introduction | Use relay? |
Chip output | for NPN | and PNP |
Sensors | Inverter
Next Page: Analogue and Digital Systems
Also See: Transistors (soldering, lead identification)
Types of transistor
There are two types of standard transistors, NPN and PNP, with different circuit symbols.
The letters refer to the layers of semiconductor material used to make the transistor.
Most transistors used today are NPN because this is the easiest type to make from silicon.
This page is mostly about NPN transistors and if you are new to electronics it is best to
start by learning how to use these first.
|Transistor circuit symbols|
The leads are labelled base (B), collector (C) and emitter (E).
These terms refer to the internal operation of a transistor but they are not much
help in understanding how a transistor is used, so just treat them as labels!
A Darlington pair is two transistors connected together
to give a very high current gain.
In addition to standard (bipolar junction) transistors, there are
field-effect transistors which are usually referred to as FETs.
They have different circuit symbols and properties and they are not (yet) covered by this page.
The diagram shows the two current paths through a transistor. You can build
this circuit with two standard 5mm red LEDs and any general purpose low power
NPN transistor (BC108, BC182 or BC548 for example).
The small base current controls the larger collector current.
When the switch is closed a small current flows into the base (B) of the
transistor. It is just enough to make LED B glow dimly. The transistor amplifies
this small current to allow a larger current to flow through from its collector (C)
to its emitter (E). This collector current is large enough to make LED C light brightly.
When the switch is open no base current flows, so the transistor switches off
the collector current. Both LEDs are off.
A transistor amplifies current and can be used as a switch.
This arrangement where the emitter (E) is in the controlling circuit (base current)
and in the controlled circuit (collector current) is called common emitter mode.
It is the most widely used arrangement for transistors so it is the one to learn first.
Functional model of an NPN transistor
The operation of a transistor is difficult to explain and understand in terms of its internal structure.
It is more helpful to use this functional model:
- The base-emitter junction behaves like a diode.
- A base current IB flows only when the voltage VBE
across the base-emitter junction is 0.7V or more.
- The small base current IB controls the large collector current Ic.
- Ic = hFE × IB
(unless the transistor is full on and saturated)
hFE is the current gain (strictly the DC current gain),
a typical value for hFE is 100 (it has no units because it is a ratio)
- The collector-emitter resistance RCE is controlled by the base current IB:
- IB = 0 RCE = infinity transistor off
- IB small RCE reduced transistor partly on
- IB increased RCE = 0 transistor full on ('saturated')
There is a table showing technical data for some popular transistors on the
- A resistor is often needed in series with the base connection to limit the base
current IB and prevent the transistor being damaged.
- Transistors have a maximum collector current Ic rating.
- The current gain hFE can vary widely,
even for transistors of the same type!
- A transistor that is full on (with RCE = 0) is said to be
- When a transistor is saturated the collector-emitter voltage VCE
is reduced to almost 0V.
- When a transistor is saturated the collector current Ic is determined
by the supply voltage and the external resistance in the collector circuit, not by
the transistor's current gain. As a result the ratio Ic/IB
for a saturated transistor is less than the current gain hFE.
- The emitter current IE = Ic + IB, but Ic
is much larger than IB, so roughly IE = Ic.
|Touch switch circuit|
This is two transistors connected together so that the current amplified by the first
is amplified further by the second transistor. The overall current gain is equal to the
two individual gains multiplied together:
Darlington pair current gain, hFE = hFE1 × hFE2
(hFE1 and hFE2 are the gains of the individual transistors)
This gives the Darlington pair a very high current gain, such as 10000, so that
only a tiny base current is required to make the pair switch on.
A Darlington pair behaves like a single transistor with a very
high current gain. It has three leads
(B, C and E)
which are equivalent to the leads of a standard individual transistor.
To turn on there must be 0.7V across both the base-emitter junctions which are connected
in series inside the Darlington pair, therefore it requires 1.4V to turn on.
Darlington pairs are available as complete packages but you can make up your own
from two transistors; TR1 can be a low power type, but normally TR2 will need to be high
power. The maximum collector current Ic(max) for the pair is the same
as Ic(max) for TR2.
A Darlington pair is sufficiently sensitive to respond to the small current passed by
your skin and it can be used to make a touch-switch as shown in the diagram.
For this circuit which just lights an LED the two transistors can be any general
purpose low power transistors.
resistor protects the transistors if the contacts are linked with a piece of wire.
Using a transistor as a switch
When a transistor is used as a switch it must be either OFF or fully ON.
In the fully ON state the voltage VCE across the transistor is almost zero
and the transistor is said to be saturated because it cannot pass any more
collector current Ic.
The output device switched by the transistor is usually called the 'load'.
The power developed in a switching transistor is very small:
This means that the transistor should not become hot in use and you do not need to
consider its maximum power rating. The important ratings in switching circuits
are the maximum collector current Ic(max) and
the minimum current gain hFE(min).
The transistor's voltage ratings may be ignored unless you
are using a supply voltage of more than about 15V.
There is a table showing technical data for some popular transistors on the
- In the OFF state: power = Ic × VCE,
but Ic = 0, so the power is zero.
- In the full ON state: power = Ic × VCE,
but VCE = 0 (almost), so the power is very small.
For information about the operation of a transistor please see the
functional model above.
If the load is a motor, relay or solenoid (or any other device with a coil)
a diode must be connected across the load to protect
the transistor (and chip) from damage when the load is switched off. The diagram shows
how this is connected 'backwards' so that it will normally NOT conduct. Conduction only
occurs when the load is switched off, at this moment current tries to continue flowing
through the coil and it is harmlessly diverted through the diode. Without the diode no
current could flow and the coil would produce a damaging high voltage 'spike' in its
attempt to keep the current flowing.
When to use a relay
Transistors cannot switch AC or high voltages (such as mains electricity) and they are
not usually a good choice for switching large currents (> 5A).
In these cases a relay will be needed, but note that
a low power transistor may still be needed to switch the current for the relay's coil!
Advantages of relays:
Disadvantages of relays:
- Relays can switch AC and DC, transistors can only switch DC.
- Relays can switch high voltages, transistors cannot.
- Relays are a better choice for switching large currents (> 5A).
- Relays can switch many contacts at once.
- Relays are bulkier than transistors for switching small currents.
- Relays cannot switch rapidly, transistors can switch many times per second.
- Relays use more power due to the current flowing through their coil.
- Relays require more current than many chips can provide, so a low power
transistor may be needed to switch the current for the relay's coil.
Connecting a transistor to the output from a chip
Most chips cannot supply large output currents so it may be necessary to use a transistor
to switch the larger current required for output devices such as lamps, motors and relays.
The 555 timer chip is unusual because it can supply a relatively large current of up to
200mA which is sufficient for some output devices such as low current lamps, buzzers and
many relay coils without needing to use a transistor.
A transistor can also be used to enable a chip connected to a low voltage supply (such as 5V)
to switch the current for an output device with a separate higher voltage supply (such as 12V).
The two power supplies must be linked, normally this is done by linking their 0V connections.
In this case you should use an NPN transistor.
A resistor RB is required to limit the current flowing into the base of the
transistor and prevent it being damaged. However, RB must be sufficiently low to
ensure that the transistor is thoroughly saturated to prevent it overheating, this is
particularly important if the transistor is switching a large current (> 100mA).
A safe rule is to make the base current IB about five times larger than
the value which should just saturate the transistor.
Choosing a suitable NPN transistor
The circuit diagram shows how to connect an NPN transistor, this will switch on
the load when the chip output is high. If you need the opposite
action, with the load switched on when the chip output is low (0V) please
see the circuit for a PNP transistor below.
The procedure below explains how to choose a suitable switching transistor.
- The transistor's maximum collector current Ic(max)
must be greater than the load current Ic.
|load current Ic =
||supply voltage Vs|
|load resistance RL|
- The transistor's minimum current gain hFE(min)
must be at least five times the load current Ic divided
by the maximum output current from the chip.
|hFE(min) > 5 ×
|| load current Ic |
|max. chip current|
- Choose a transistor which meets these requirements and make a note of
its properties: Ic(max)
There is a table showing technical data for some popular transistors
on the transistors page.
- Calculate an approximate value for the base resistor:
||Vc × hFE
|| where Vc = chip supply voltage
(in a simple circuit with one supply this is Vs)
|5 × Ic|
For a simple circuit where the chip and the load share the same power supply
(Vc = Vs) you may prefer to use:
RB = 0.2 × RL × hFE
Then choose the nearest standard value for the base resistor.
- Finally, remember that if the load is a motor or relay coil a
protection diode is required.
The output from a 4000 series CMOS chip is required to operate a relay with a
The supply voltage is 6V for both the chip and load. The chip can supply a maximum current of 5mA.
- Load current = Vs/RL = 6/100 = 0.06A = 60mA,
so transistor must have Ic(max) > 60mA.
- The maximum current from the chip is 5mA,
so transistor must have hFE(min) > 60
(5 × 60mA/5mA).
- Choose general purpose low power transistor BC182 with
Ic(max) = 100mA
and hFE(min) = 100.
- RB = 0.2 × RL × hFE
= 0.2 × 100 × 100 =
so choose RB = 1k8 or 2k2.
- The relay coil requires a protection diode.
|PNP transistor switch|
(load is on when chip output is low)
Choosing a suitable PNP transistor
The circuit diagram shows how to connect a PNP transistor, this will switch on
the load when the chip output is low (0V). If you need the opposite
action, with the load switched on when the chip output is high please
see the circuit for an NPN transistor above.
The procedure for choosing a suitable PNP transistor is exactly the same
as that for an NPN transistor described above.
Using a transistor switch with sensors
The top circuit diagram shows an LDR (light sensor)
connected so that the LED lights when the LDR is in darkness.
The variable resistor adjusts the brightness at which the transistor switches on and off.
Any general purpose low power transistor can be used in this circuit.
|LED lights when the LDR is dark|
|LED lights when the LDR is bright|
The 10k fixed resistor
protects the transistor from excessive base current (which will destroy it) when the variable
resistor is reduced to zero. To make this circuit switch at a suitable brightness you may
need to experiment with different values for the fixed resistor, but it must not be less than
If the transistor is switching a load with a coil, such as a motor or relay, remember
to add a protection diode across the load.
The switching action can be inverted, so the LED lights when the
LDR is brightly lit, by swapping the LDR and variable resistor. In this case the fixed
resistor can be omitted because the LDR resistance cannot be reduced to zero.
Note that the switching action of this circuit is not particularly good because there will
be an intermediate brightness when the transistor will be partly on (not saturated).
In this state the transistor is in danger of overheating unless it is switching a
small current. There is no problem with the small LED current, but the larger current
for a lamp, motor or relay is likely to cause overheating.
Other sensors, such as a thermistor,
can be used with this circuit, but they may require a different variable resistor.
You can calculate an approximate value for the variable resistor (Rv) by using a
multimeter to find the minimum and maximum values
of the sensor's resistance (Rmin and Rmax):
Variable resistor, Rv = square root of (Rmin × Rmax)
For example an LDR: Rmin =
100, Rmax =
1M, so Rv =
square root of (100 × 1M)
You can make a much better switching circuit with sensors connected to a suitable
IC (chip). The switching action will be much sharper with no partly on state.
A transistor inverter (NOT gate)
Inverters (NOT gates) are available on logic chips but if you only require one
inverter it is usually better to use this circuit. The output signal (voltage)
is the inverse of the input signal:
Any general purpose low power NPN transistor can be used. For general use
RB = 10k
and RC = 1k,
then the inverter output can be connected to a device with an input impedance (resistance)
of at least 10k
such as a logic chip or a 555 timer (trigger and reset inputs).
- When the input is high (+Vs) the output is low (0V).
- When the input is low (0V) the output is high (+Vs).
If you are connecting the inverter to a CMOS logic chip input (very high impedance)
you can increase RB to
and RC to 10k,
this will reduce the current used by the inverter.
Next Page: Analogue and Digital Systems
| Studying Electronics
© John Hewes 2007, The Electronics Club,